Most Christians believe that Yahweh’s Laws have been “buried at the cross”, and consider them a burden, yet fail to realise that He created us and knows what is good and what isn’t. He is our creator! Why is it so hard for us to accept that He gave us Laws to protect us just as a loving Father would do for His children.
Does it not make sense that if foods were unclean for His people 4000 years ago that they are still unclean? Have our digestive systems been miraculously transfomed to process the toxins contained in scum sucking bottom dwellers and swine flesh just because Yahushua died and rose again?
Let’s examine some of the Scripture surrounding the consumption of what Scripture calls “unclean meats” In the beginning, all living things (including man) in Yahweh’s creation ate plants. Some don’t even realise that lions, hyena, vultures and tyrannosaurus rex ate nothing but plants! Speaking to Adam:
Genesis 1:29 Elohim said, “See, I have given you every plant that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed, to you it is for food. 30 “And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to every creeping creature on the earth, in which there is life, every green plant is for food.” And it came to be so.
This of course makes perfect sense because this was Yahweh’s “very good” Creation. Death is only a consequence of disobedience to Him therefore there could be no death and disease (or evolution for that matter) beacause no one had yet sinned. It was only after the curse of “sin unto death” came that man and animals started turning on each other and killing and it wasn’t till Noah and his sons disembarked from the ark that mankind was permitted by Yahweh to eat meat and mans relationship to animals was altered.
Genesis 9:2 “And the fear of you and the dread of you is on every beast of the earth, on every bird of the heavens, on all that creeps on the ground, and on all the fish of the sea – into your hand they have been given.3 “Every moving creature that lives is food for you. I have given you all, as I gave the green plants. 4 “But do not eat flesh with its life, its blood.”
Because of the effects of the curse, disease and pollution took their toll on the creation and Yahweh gave Laws to His people to mark them as set apart. These were the Commandments given to Mosheh in Leviticus 11.
As with all Yahweh’s Laws, what Yahushua has accomplished in His death and resurrection has fulfilled the Preistly laws; all else will not pass away till ALL is done.(Matt 5:17-20)
Psalm 89:34 “I shall not profane My covenant, Neither would I change what has gone out from My lips.”
POPULAR ARGUMENTS AGAINST CLEAN FOODS
Five New Covenant Scriptures are often cited in attempts to challenge the clean food laws of the First Covenant. We will examine each one of them.
When it comes to obeying the clean food laws of Scripture, some outside the belief will find the practice novel, others peculiar. Still others will cite a passage or two in the New Covenant in an effort to say that the True Worshiper no longer needs to concern himself or herself with that “old Mosaic law” in this age of “grace”. We answer the most popularly cited New Covenant verses in this article.
How important are clean foods to True Worship? Consider that it was the breaking of a “kosher” law that caused Adam and Hawwah (Eve) to commit the original sin. Yahweh certifies certain foods as acceptable and other foods as unacceptable for our consumption. It was that way at creation and remains true today. Kosher simply means to be straight or right, by implication to be acceptable; also to succeed or prosper (Strong’sConcordance No. 3787). Yahweh told mankind’s original parents which food was right and acceptable and which was not. Obeying Him, we will succeed and prosper. Neither He nor His standards ever change, Malachi 3:6.
Yahweh’s laws of clean and unclean animals, fish, birds, insects, and even dead creatures, are found in His Word. Just as with the Ten Commandments, we can see these laws operating long before they were reiterated to Israel and handed down to Mosheh on stone tablets at Sinai. We also see them still in force in the New Covenant.
Look at plants, for example. In Genesis 1:29 Yahweh told Adam and Hawwah at the beginning of creation:
“See, I have given you every plant that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed, to you it is for food.”
Later, in His covenant with Noah, the Creator stipulates that the green plant is given for food (Gen. 9:3). Yahweh limited edible plants to those that are green and propagate by seeds. Those plants that lack either chlorophyll or seeds, or both, are called into question — including fungi such as mushrooms as well as various parasitic plants.
Another example in which we see clean food laws in operation long before Sinai is in Yahweh’s instructions to Noah. Yahweh told Noah that clean animals were to go aboard the ark by sevens, but he was to limit the unclean to only two, Genesis 7:2. Noah obviously had to know the difference because of the clean food laws. Peter knew the difference as well, as we see in his reaction to his own vision in Acts 10.
The laws of clean and unclean food are like the moral laws — they have been in effect since the beginning of creation. Therefore, we cannot brush them off with the argument that they were merely “Mosaic” and given only to ancient Israel.
DECIPHERING CLEAN FROM UNCLEAN
In Leviticus 11 Yahweh details the laws regulating clean and unclean foods. Verses 1-8 focus on acceptable and unacceptable animals as food:
Leviticus 11:1-8 “And YHWH spoke to Mosheh and to Aharon, saying to them, 2 “Speak to the children of Yisra’ĕl, saying, ‘These are the living creatures which you do eat among all the beasts that are on the earth: 3‘Whatever has a split hoof completely divided, chewing the cud, among the beasts, that you do eat. 4‘Only, these you do not eat among those that chew the cud or those that have a split hoof: the camel, because it chews the cud but does not have a split hoof, it is unclean to you; 5 and the rabbit, because it chews the cud but does not have a split hoof, it is unclean to you; 6 and the hare, because it chews the cud but does not have a split hoof, it is unclean to you; 7 and the pig, though it has a split hoof, completely divided, yet does not chew the cud, it is unclean to you. 8 ‘Their flesh you do not eat, and their carcasses you do not touch. They are unclean to you.”
A split hoof of two toes and chewing the cud (the process of casting up and re-chewing of food) are the two criteria that qualify animals that can be used for food. Leviticus 11 lists several animals that do not fit these qualifications. These animals include the camel, rabbit, and pig. The pig (Heb. Chazir) is one the most gluttonous animals on the earth. This animal has been held sacred by the Greeks, Romans, and Anglo-Saxons. Yahweh also prohibited us from touching their carcasses.
Aquatic life is discussed in verses 9-12:
“These you do eat of all that are in the waters: any one that has fins and scales in the waters, in the seas or in the rivers, that you do eat. 10 ‘But all that have not fins and scales in the seas and in the rivers, all that move in the waters or any living creature which is in the waters, they are an abomination to you. 11 ‘They are an abomination to you – of their flesh you do not eat, and their carcasses you abominate. 12 ‘All that have not fins or scales in the waters is an abomination to you.” (Leviticus 11:9-12).
For aquatic creatures to be fit to eat, they must have both fins and scales. One school of thought explains that marine animals without fins and scales tend to be bottom feeders, consuming the effluent that sinks to the mud. Having this in mind, we can perceive the reason Yahweh prohibited these marine species. Aquatic life unfit for human consumption includes shrimp, lobster, oysters, clams, crabs, and catfish. Modern science is now finding dangerous levels of harmful, heavy metals like mercury and lead in the flesh of many of these creatures. Yahweh certainly knows best!
Verses 13-19 discuss unclean birds:
“And these you do abominate among the birds, they are not eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture, and the black vulture, 14 and the hawk, and the falcon after its kind, 15 every raven after its kind, 16 and the ostrich, and the nighthawk, and the seagull, and the hawk after its kind, 17 and the little owl, and the fisher owl, and the great owl, 18 and the white owl, and the pelican, and the carrion vulture, 19 and the stork, the heron after its kind, and the hoopoe, and the bat.” (Lev. 11:13-19).
The first unfit bird that is mentioned is the eagle (Heb. nesher, from nashar). Nesher means to cut or tear in pieces. From this definition we can see that the eagle is a raptor. Among the Greeks and Romans the eagle was held sacred, and is represented carrying the thunderbolts of Jupiter.
Forbidden birds are also listed in Deuteronomy 14:11-18, but Yahweh does not specify why these particular birds are forbidden. Other kinds of bird are permitted, such as chicken, goose, duck and turkey.
We will now examine those New Covenant passages that are commonly used in claims that the Old Covenant food laws are no longer binding.
THE PASSAGE IN QUESTION
Mark 7:18 “And He said to them, “Are you also without understanding? Do you not perceive that whatever enters a man from outside is unable to defile him…”
Erroneous interpretation – Yahushua was condemning the Scribes and Pharisees for their strict lawkeeping, decreeing that virtually any “food” is harmless and therefore edible.
Proper Understanding – When taken in proper context, this passage is not difficult to understand. At the beginning we find Yahushua’s disciples eating with unwashed hands in plain sight of the Scribes and Pharisees. The Scribes and Pharisees were two Jewish sects in the time of Yahushua. These Jews had many rabbinical traditions that had been handed down through the ages, and one of those was ceremonial washing of hands before eating. We can see this in the first few verses.
Mark 7:3-4 “For the Pharisees, and all the Yehudim, do not eat unless they wash their hands thoroughly, holding fast the tradition of the elders, 4 and coming from the market-place, they do not eat unless they wash. And there are many other traditions which they have received and hold fast – the washing of cups and utensils and copper vessels and couches.”
When the Scribes and Pharisees saw Yahushua’s disciples eating before washing their hands, they accused Yahushua and His disciples of breaking their traditions. Yahushua was not pleased with their condemnation, but in turn accused them of placing their own man-made doctrine or dogma over Yahweh’s commandments.
Mark 7:6-9 “Well did Yeshayahu prophesy concerning you hypocrites, as it has been written, ‘This people respect Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me. 7 And in vain do they worship Me, teaching as teachings the commands of men.’ 8 “Forsaking the command of Elohim, you hold fast the tradition of men.” 9 And He said to them, “Well do you set aside the command of Elohim, in order to guard your tradition.”
Yahushua does not condemn them for compliance with Yahweh’s kosher food Laws, but instead condemns them for their doctrines of men. These doctrines were not part of Yahweh’s Torah, but were laws established by Jewish leaders through many generations. Yahushua’s condemnation goes even further than their doctrines of men. Yahushua chastised the Scribes and Pharisees for their carnal natures.
Throughout the New Covenant it becomes clear that these Jewish leaders who were responsible for teaching Yahweh’s Torah became complacent with the more important matters. This may be seen in Matthew 23:23, where Yahushua makes this statement:
“Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you tithe the mint and the anise and the cumin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the Torah: the right-ruling and the compassion and the belief. These need to have been done, without neglecting the others.”
This was most evidently the problem in Mark 7:21 which we can see through Yahushua’s statement:
“For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil reasonings, adulteries, whorings, murders, 22 thefts, greedy desires, wickednesses, deceit, indecency, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness. 23 “All these wicked matters come from within and defile a man.” (Mark 7:21-23).
Ingesting some dirt from unwashed hands will not defile a man, Yahushua taught in verse 18. But evil thoughts will defile because they come from the heart, verses 19-20. Nowhere in Mark 7 do we find Yahweh’s clean food Laws mentioned. We simply see the same message Yahushua taught during his ministry here on earth. We are to observe Yahweh’s physical Laws without neglecting His weightier Laws.
THE PASSAGE IN QUESTION
Acts 10:15 “And a voice came to him again the second time, “What Elohim has cleansed you do not consider common.”
Erroneous interpretation – Yahweh has cleansed all meats in the New Covenant era.
Proper Understanding – To grasp this verse, and Peter’s vision surrounding it, is to understand the context of the entire chapter. At the start of this passage we find a Gentile named Cornelius, an army captain. We learn that he is righteous and is well respected by all those around him, including the Yehudim (Jews). One day Yahweh sends a heavenly messenger to deliver a message to Cornelius: send men to Yapho to Shim’on the Tanner where they will meet the Apostle Kĕpha (Peter). Cornelius complies.
Before the men arrive, Kĕpha goes onto the housetop to pray and there becomes hungry. As Kĕpha prays he falls into a trace through which Yahweh reveals a message that will change True Worship forever. In his vision Kĕpha sees a great sheet come down from the sky and on this sheet he finds all types of unclean beasts. Next, Kĕpha hears a shocking proclamation. A voice commands, “Rise up, Kĕpha, slay and eat.” Peter cannot believe what he is hearing. He is confused and baffled at this command. It is repeated three times by the messenger before the sheet is taken away.
Kĕpha argues that he has never eaten anything unclean (verse 14), not even to this day – 10 years after the death of Yahushua. Surely if the laws of clean and unclean foods had been abolished at the Saviour’s death, one of the greatest apostles of the New Covenant would have been aware of it immediately after Yahushua’s death. After all, Kĕpha was filled with the Set-apart Spirit, which taught the apostles all things (John 14:26).
After the vision the three men that were sent by Cornelius find Kĕpha and he returns with them to meet Cornelius. Once there, Kĕpha explains the meaning of his vision of the sheet.
“You know that a Yehudite man is not allowed to associate with, or go to one of another race. But Elohim has shown me that I should not call any man common or unclean.” (Acts 10:28).
Thereafter Cornelius becomes the first Gentile convert to the faith. Here we have the simple explanation of this vision from the mouth of the inspired Apostle Kĕpha himself: Gentiles, once considered unclean, may now enter the Covenant promise. Yahweh simply used unclean food to symbolize “unclean” Gentiles, who can now enter the Promises.
The Adam Clark’s Commentary on the Bible notes, “He [Peter] now begins to understand the import of the vision which he saw at Joppa. A gentile is not to be avoided because he is a gentile; [Elohim] is now taking down the partition wall which separated them from the Jews” (p. 984).
In the First Covenant Yahweh’s promise was only offered completely to Yisra’ĕl, and not freely given to the Gentiles until the death of Yahushua the Messiah. At the death of Yahushua the wall that separated Jew from Gentile was broken down through the blood of our Saviour.
Ephesians 2:11 “Therefore remember that you, once gentiles in the flesh, who are called ‘the uncircumcision’ by what is called ‘the circumcision’ made in the flesh by hands, 12 that at that time you were without Messiah, excluded from the citizenship of Yisra’ĕl and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no expectation and without Elohim in the world. 13 But now in Messiah Yahushua you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of the Messiah. 14 For He is our peace, who has made both one, and having broken down the partition of the barrier.”
In verse 35 of Acts 10 Kĕpha summarizes the lesson of his vision that he received in Yapho on the rooftop of the house of Shim’on the Tanner:
“Truly I see that Elohim shows no partiality, 35 but in every nation, he who fears Him (Yahweh) and works righteousness is accepted by Him.”
Clearly the vision seen by Kĕpha was to show him in a very graphic and profound way that Gentiles – who were once considered unclean – were now permitted into Yahweh’s covenant. NOWHERE in this passage are Yahweh’s clean food Laws discussed or repealed. Kĕpha himself denies that he should ever eat anything that conflicts with the clean food Laws
THE PASSAGE IN QUESTION
Romans 14:1-3 “And receive him who is weak in the belief, not criticising his thoughts. 2 One indeed believes to eat all food, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. 3 He that eats, let him not despise him who does not eat, and he that does not eat, let him not judge him who eats, for Elohim received him.”
Erroneous Interpretation – The apostle Paul shows that those who wish to eat whatever they desire should not be judged by those who choose to follow the clean food laws.
Proper Understanding – To grasp the meaning we must realize what the concern was at the time it was written. Another of Paul’s writings, 1 Corinthians 10, is helpful in our understanding of Romans 14. These two letters were written only a year apart and have similar issues. His letter to the Corinthians may hold the solution as to why Sha’ul (Paul) called those who ate only herbs here “weak.”
In 1 Corinthians 10 Sha’ul discusses the issue of food or meats sacrificed to idols.
“Look at Yisra’ĕl after the flesh: Are not those who eat of the offerings sharers in the altar? 19 What then do I say? That an idol is of any value? Or that which is offered to idols is of any value? 20 No, but what the gentiles offer they offer to demons and not to Elohim, and I do not wish you to become sharers with demons.” (1 Cor 10:18-20).
Sha’ul here faces a dilemma, which at that time was a major concern for the Jew and the Gentile convert. He writes in verse 25: “You eat whatever is sold in the meat market, asking no questions because of conscience.”In the Gentile meat markets (“shambles” = makellon, a butcher’s stall) meat was sold that had been first sacrificed to different idols; and many Jew and Gentile converts whom Sha’ul calls “weak” in belief did not buy or eat this meat, considering it impure. Sha’ul, however, said that this food was sacrificed to nothing. These pagan idols were meaningless, nonliving objects invented by man. Sha’ul realized that they could do neither good nor bad because as “deities” they were non-existent.
But then Sha’ul warns of an issue that all of Yahweh’s people should acknowledge and be concerned with. He says in 1 Corinthians 10:29 that we are not to partake of anything that may offend or upset a brother in the belief. Sha’ul says that he would not even eat any meat or drink wine if it would offend a brother and cause him to stumble in the truth (Rom. 14:21). We should remember the second greatest commandment: “love your neighbor as yourself” (Matt. 22:39).
If we apply what we read in 1 Corinthians 10 to Romans 14, we may conclude that those that were weak and ate only herbs lacked the belief to realize that meat sacrificed to idols was no different from other food. Such idols are neither good nor bad, but take on existence only for those who would believe in them. These idols had no effect on the meat that was sacrificed to them. The meat was still proper for man to eat according to Yahweh’s dietary food Laws (assuming it first qualified as clean).
For those who prefer to be vegetarian, that is okay, Sha’ul says (Rom 14:2-4). Then he addresses those who choose to set aside one day for fasting, vv. 5-6. He sums up Romans 14 in verse 20:
“Do not destroy the work of Elohim for the sake of food.”
Don’t let disputes over vegetarianism or fasting cause division among brothers and sisters in Messiah.
Nothing in any of these passages allows the eating of meat that doesn’t qualify lawfully, obviously.
THE PASSAGE IN QUESTION
Colossians 2:16 “Let no one therefore judge you in eating or in drinking, or in respect of a festival or a new moon or Sabbaths.”
Erroneous Interpretation – We are not to judge men on the freedom they now have in Messiah. No longer is the keeping of Old Covenant food Laws or any other laws necessary for New Covenant believers.
Proper understanding – Is Sha’ul speaking to the assembly or to the world in general? The answer is key to understanding this passage. If Sha’ul is speaking to a pagan world that has neglected Yahweh’s Word, then it would only make sense to conclude that Sha’ul is saying that we are no longer under Old Covenant regulations and must not be judged in those matters. But if Sha’ul is speaking to an obedient assembly, then this passage would take on a much different meaning. The truth is, this letter is to an Assembly of believers at Colosse.
The following verse 17 is key: “Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body [is] of Christ.” (KJV) Translators have italicized the word “is”, meaning it was added. If we take “is” out, and read verses 16 and 17 together, we see that it is the body of Messiah that should do the judging. “no one” in verse 16 refers to any person, including outsiders. “Don’t let any outsider judge you in what you eat, but only the Body of Messiah,” Sha’ul is saying.
The 4th verse is an additional help. It reads:
“And this I say, lest any man should beguile you with enticing words.”
From this we can see that the Apostle Sha’ul’s concern was for this assembly, for there were those outside the assembly trying to persuade the people of Colosse to reject their present beliefs. With this in mind it is evident that Sha’ul’s statement in Colossians 2:16 was for an assembly that was obediently following Yahweh’s Laws. His warning is not to let heathens – outsiders – try to persuade you differently regarding the keeping of clean food Laws and other laws of Yahweh.
THE PASSAGE IN QUESTION
1 Timothy 4:4 “Because every creature of Elohim is good, and none is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving.”
Erroneous Interpretation – Every creature is acceptable for consumption if received with thanksgiving.
Proper Understanding –A “creature of Elohim” that meets clean food qualifications is defined in the next verse: “For it is set apart by the Word of Elohim and prayer.” It is the Word that sanctifies or sets apart those animals (listed in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14) that Yahweh says we may eat. Without any further study it should be clear as crystal that Sha’ul is not promoting the eating of ceremonially unclean animals that Yahweh has ordained as abominable for mankind. Who would argue that rats, bats, lizards, scorpions and skunks are good for food?
Yahweh’s dietary Laws have not been annulled, but remain for all of Yahweh’s New Covenant believers. As it becomes more knowledgeable about food and its effects on health, modern science is verifying what Scripture has been teaching for millennia – that certain meats are harmful and are not meant to be eaten. Therefore, we can see why Yahweh prohibited specific “foods” as unfit. Even then, however, True Worshipers do not need a scientific explanation. The simple fact that the Maker of our bodies tells us what to avoid is reason enough to obey.
Yahweh’s Word prohibits consumption of both fat and blood (Lev 3:17; 7:23, 26-27). The fat of the animal was offered to Yahweh in sacrifice (Lev 3:16). It belongs to Him. The life of the animal is found in its blood (Lev 17:10-14). Both fat and blood of the sacrifice were treated separately from the meat of the sacrifice and neither were eaten. Thus, it is necessary to remove all blood from the flesh of Scripturally clean animals before eating and to avoid eating residual blood.
At the time of slaughter, rapid draining of most of the blood must occur. This process is unnecessary with fish, as very little blood remains in the meat of fish. Any remaining blood can be removed by soaking in brine.
A General List of Fish that have Fins AND Scales
|Blue Runner||Bonits||Boston Bluefish||Bluefish||Bowfin||Buffalo fish||Butterfish|
|Fresh Water Mullet||Frost Fish||Groupers||Grunts||Gulf Pike||Halibut||Haddock|
|Hake||Hardhead||Hardtail||Herring||Horse Mackerel||Ice Fish||Jack|
|Kingfish||Long Nose Sucker||Mackerel||Menhaden||Minnow||Mullet||Muskeilunge|
|Northern Sucker||Pickerels||Pig Fish||Pikes||Pilchards||Pollack||Pompano|
|Porgy||Red Drum||Redfin||Redfish||Red Horse Sucker||Red Snapper||Red Striped Sucker|
|Robalo||Salmon||Sardine||Scup||Sea Bass||Sergeant Fish||Shad|
|Spanish Mackerel||Striped BassSunfish||Tarpon||Trouts||Tunas||Weakfish||White Fish|
|Talipa||White Sucker||Whiting||Yellow Perch|
Birds that are Clean to Eat
Duck and Goose are questionable. Further research would be advised.
Clean Creeping Things
A General List of Water Creatures without both Fins AND Scales
Birds that are Unclean
Unclean Creeping Things
|Snail||Slug||All Insects Except: Locust Family|
|Animal:||Mono and Diglycerides||See label||stabilizer, emulsifier||may be unclean|
|Animal:||Rennet||See label||coagulant||Derived from lining membranes of stomach of suckling calves|
|Animal:||Serum Albumin||NOT KOSHER||coagulant||Unclean|
|Animal:||Softeners||See label||used in chewing gum||Possibly Unclean|
|Animal Fat:||Dough Conditioners||See label||improve texture of bread||also from calcium stearoyl~2 Lactylate|
|Animal Fat:||Emulsifiers||See label||binding oils and waters||May be unclean|
|Animal Fat:||Fats||See label||emulsifiers||may be unclean|
|Animal Fat:||Glycerine||Kosher||humectant||fromt beef, petroleum, or vegetable|
|Animal Fat:||Lipids||See label||shortening, flavoring||May be unclean|
|Animal Fat:||Oleic Acid||See label||defoaming, flavoring||May be unclean|
|Animal Fat:||Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids||See label||oils||May be unclean|
|Animal Oil:||Calcium Stearate||See label||anticaking||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate||See label||dough conditioner||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Glyceride||See label||flavor enhancer||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Glycerol Monostearate||See label||flavor enhancer||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Magnesium Searate||See label||anti caking agent||See also stearic acid|
|Animal Oil:||Stearic Acid||See label||butter/vanilla flavoring||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Oxysterins||See label||defoaming, flavoring||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Polysorbate 60, 65, 80||See label||emulsifiers||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Shortenings||See label||make bake tov light and flaky||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Oil:||Sorbitan Monostearate||See label||emulsifier||See also stearic acid|
|Animal Oil:||Stearyl Lactylic Acid||See label||emulsifier||May be unclean oil|
|Animal Tissue:||Catalase||Kosher||coaulant||cow liver|
|Animal Tissue:||Choline Bitartrate||See label||B complex vitamen||May be unclean animal|
|Animal Tissue:||Civet, Absolute||NOT KOSHER||flavoring||Made from cats|
|Cocoa Bean:||Cocoa Butter||Kosher||chocolate||None|
|Coconut:||Coconut Oil||Kosher||edible fats||None|
|Corn:||Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)||Kosher||nutrient||may also be synthetic|
|Corn:||Lecithin||Kosher||emulsifier||also from soybeans|
|Earth:||Alum Aluminum Sulfate||Kosher||clarifying oils/fats||None|
|Fruits/Veggies:||Calcium Citrate||Kosher||antioxidant, sugar||None|
|Fruits/Veggies:||Citric Acid||Kosher||antioxidant, sugar||None|
|Fruits/Veggies:||Vegetable Gums||Kosher||substitute for gelatin||None|
|Human:||Cysteine. L form||NOT KOSHER||nutrient in bakery products||Sometimes from deceased women|
|Hog:||Alpha Amylase||NOT KOSHER||breakdown starches||Found in flour|
|Hog:||APepsin||NOT KOSHER||coagulant in cheese||MAY BE SYNTHETIC and therefore clean|
|Horse:||Cysteine. L form||NOT KOSHER||nutrient in bakery products||an Amino acid|
|Insects:||Carmine (Cochineal)||NOT KOSHER||food coloring||coccus cacti|
|Insects:||Confectionery Glaze||NOT KOSHER||coating candy, pills||read label|
|Insects:||Resinous Glaze||NOT KOSHER||coating candy, pills||read label|
|Insects:||Shellac||NOT KOSHER||glaze on confectionery products||read label|
|Limestone:||Calcium Carbonate||Kosher||tooth powder||None|
|Milk:||Calcium Sterol Lactylate||Kosher||instant mashed potatoes||may also be from soybeans|
|Milk:||Lactose (milk sugar)||Kosher||sweetener||None|
|Milk:||Potassium Caseinate||Kosher||stabilitzer, texturizer||None|
|Multiple:||Acetic Acid||See label||fermentation||May be from muscles|
|Multiple:||Albumin||See label||coagulant||May be from blood|
|Multiple:||Lactalbumin||See label||coagulant||May be from blood|
|Multiple:||Lysine, L and DL forms||See label||coagulant||May be from blood|
|Palm Oil:||Ascorbate Palmitate||Kosher||preservative||may also be synthetic|
|Palm Oil:||Caprylic Acid||Kosher||preservative and flavoring||None|
|Palm Oil:||Lauric Fats||Kosher||oil||None|
|Plant:||Eschalots||Kosher||flavoring||onion like plant|
|Plant:||Ethyl Vanillin||Kosher||flavoring||Spruce; may also be synthetic|
|Plant:||Filberts||Kosher||flavoring||type of hazelnut|
|Plant:||Glucose||Kosher||sweetner||potatoes, corn, & fruits|
|Plant:||Gum Arabic/Acacia||Kosher||thickening agent||gum tree|
|Plant:||Gum Base||Kosher||chewing gum||gum tree|
|Plant:||Invert Sugar||Kosher||sweetener||sugar cane|
|Plant:||Invertase (invertin)||Kosher||invert sugar from sucrose||yeast|
|Plant:||Lactic Acid||Kosher||preservative||molasses, corn|
|Plant:||Malt Syrup||Kosher||emulsifier||malt and barley|
|Plant:||Natural Fruit Flavors||Kosher||flavoring||concentrated fruit|
|Plant:||Oil of Lemon||Kosher||flavoring||Lemon peel|
|Plant:||Oil of Rose||Kosher||flavoring||Rose petals|
|Plant:||Oil of Caraway||Kosher||flavoring||Seeds of Carum carui|
|Plant:||Oil of Cardamon||Kosher||flavoring||Alleppy Cardamon|
|Plant:||Oil of Cassia||Kosher||flavoring||Chinese cinnamon|
|Plant:||Oil of Celery||Kosher||flavoring||Celery|
|Plant:||Oil of Cinnamon||Kosher||flavoring||Bark of Cinnamonum zeylanicum|
|Plant:||Sorbic Acid||Kosher||mold inhibitor||Berries|
|Plant:||Vanillin||Kosher||flavoring||Bark of spruce tree|
|Seaweed:||Agar Agar||Kosher||gelatin substitute||None|
|Seaweed:||Alginic Acid||Kosher||thickening agent||None|
|Seaweed:||Calcium Alginate||Kosher||thickening agent||None|
|Starch:||Dextrose (corn syrup)||Kosher||sweetner||None|
|Sugar:||Monosodium Glutamate||Kosher||flavor enhancer||sugar (plants, beets, corn)|
|Synthetic:||BHA (Butylated Hydroxanisole)||Kosher||antioxidant||None|
|Synthetic:||BHA (Butylated Hydroxtoluene||Kosher||antioxidant||None|
|Synthetic:||Calcium Disodium (EDTA)||Kosher||flavor retention||None|
|Synthetic:||Carbon Black||Kosher||food coloring||None|
|Synthetic:||Ethyl Vanillin||Kosher||flavoring||may also come from bark of spruce tree|
|Synthetic:||Methyl P Hydroxy Benzoate||Kosher||preservative||None|
|Synthetic:||Musk||See label||flavoring||used to come from deer glands|
|Synthetic:||Proplyene Glycol (Alginate)||Kosher||emulsifier||None|
|Synthetic:||Release Agents||Kosher||keep heated food from sticking to pan||None|
|Synthetic:||Sodium Lauryl Sulfate||Kosher||detergent||None|
|Synthetic:||Sodium Meta bisulfate||Kosher||preservative||None|
|Whale Intestine:||Ambergris||NOT KOSHER||flavoring||Also found in perfume|
|Whale:||Sperm Oil||NOT KOSHER||release agent||Unclean|
|Wine Casks:||Argot||Kosher||vinegar, cream of tartar||None|
|Wine Casks:||Cream of Tartar||Kosher||baking||None|